Kuss claims that this practice had been long established by all nations as a special branch of warfare and a process had been completed before Germany even acquired colonies.53 Finally, she contends that Trotha ‘did not intend to bring about a situation in which the Herero would be subject to a slow death through adverse natural conditions’.54 This is a significant claim, since the traditional definition of genocide rests in part on the ‘intent to destroy’ a population.55. [16], The German Colonial empire got its start around 1884, and in those years they acquired several territories in Africa: German East Africa (including present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania); German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia), German Cameroon (including parts of present-day Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Chad and Nigeria); and Togoland (present-day Togo and parts of Ghana). Wehler, Das deutsche Kaiserreich, 1871–1918 (Göttingen, 1973); A. Césaire, Discours sur le colonialisme (Paris, 1955); H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York, 1966); R. Gerwarth and S. Malinowski, ‘Hannah Arendt’s Ghost: Reflections on the Disputable Path from Windhoek to Auschwitz’, Central European History, xlii (2009), pp. Claiming much of the left-over uncolonized areas in the Scramble for Africa, Germany built the t… The public was informed that German colonies were a threat because "Every German colony has a powerful wireless station — they will talk to one another across the seas, and at every opportunity they [German ships] will dash from cover to harry and destroy our commerce, and maybe, to raid our coasts. [88], The Dualas, a Bantu group in Cameroon readily welcomed German policies The number of German-speaking Africans increased in four West African German colonies prior to 1914. He helped England to occupy Rhodesia, Nyasalahd and Cape Colony. The native population was forced into unequal treaties by the German colonial governments. [71] In Africa (1913), 12,292 Germans lived in Southwest Africa, 4,107 in German East Africa and 1,643 in Cameroon. Evidence is based on necrologies and narrative interviews in Tanzania. [55], British placement of surrogate responsibility for former German colonies on white-settler dominions was at the time determined to be the most expedient option for the British government — and an appropriate reward for the Dominions having fulfilled their "great and urgent imperial service" through military intervention at the behest of and for Great Britain. German Colonial Wars engages in a stimulating dialogue with previous arguments and is a clear enrichment to the literature of the field. 33 percent to France, and 25 percent to Belgium. Klein-Venedig ("Little Venice"; also the etymology of the name "Venezuela") was the most significant part of the German colonization of the Americas, from 1528 to 1546, in which the Augsburg-based Welser banking family to the Habsburgs was given the colonial rights by Emperor Charles V, who was also King of Spain and owed debts to them for his Imperial election. [69] Despite this, the leadership in Berlin committed the nation to the financial support, maintenance, development and defence of these possessions. Geologists and cartographers explored what were the unmarked regions on European maps, identifying mountains and rivers, and demarcating boundaries. I am no man for colonies"[11] and "remained as contemptuous of all colonial dreams as ever. Peters used troops raised locally and through the hiring of mercenaries to expand German influence into Uganda and other areas of the continent, raising the ire of the British colonialists, and ruthlessly crushed native resistance to German expansion. [62] The victors retained the German overseas possessions and did so with the belief that Australian, Belgian, British, French, Japanese, New Zealand, Portuguese and South African rule was superior to Germany's. By 1900, when the force of the quick colonization was over, the majority of the land in Africa was divided up amongst seven different European colonizing nations: Britain, France, Spain, … The next is the 120th anniversary of the 1884 Berlin West Afric… A constant lack of supplies and land didn't help, and the next year Texas joined the United States. [77], During the Herero genocide Eugen Fischer, a German scientist, came to the concentration camps to conduct medical experiments on race, using children of Herero people and multiracial children of Herero women and German men as test subjects. However, Catholic missions have remained relatively untouched by scholarship. Several also took up the opportunity for further training at the Benedictine convent itself. The research is truly transnational in terms of archival work and has resulted in a logically organised and detailed study. The Forum is located in the reconstruction of the ‘’Berlin Palace”, a symbol of the German colonial empire. These included interning non-European patients in fenced-in barracks and camps until they were deemed risk-free, similar to ‘lock hospitals’ in British colonies.13 Here and elsewhere throughout the book, the author situates the German experience in a broader colonial context by including frequent references to secondary literature on the British case. Indeed, it was not until the 1980s that Tanzanian candidates were allowed entry into the convents of Peramiho and Ndanda.34. Weltkrieg in Deutsch-Südwestafrika 1914/15", Band 1, 2. [33] Successful German plantation operators realized the benefits of systematic scientific inquiry and instituted and maintained their own stations with their own personnel, who further engaged in exploration and documentation of the native fauna and flora. "A Historiography of German Togoland, or the Rise and Fall of a "Model Colony". The discussion comes into full stride in this chapter, however, which focuses on Lebenswelten; here we encounter, for example, the life story of Rudolf Vierhaus, missionary in Tanganyika between 1922 and 1965. The third part of the book, ‘Fighting Venereal Disease in the Colonies’, shows in particular how colonial authorities exerted their power not only in the implementation of control measures, but especially in the reaction to non-compliance with public health measures. The German colonial empire (German: Deutsches Kolonialreich) constituted the overseas colonies, dependencies and territories of Imperial Germany. Most converted to Protestantism and were schooled educated along German lines. It could usefully have been extended with personal accounts. In the 1680s, the Mar­gravi­ate of Bran­den­burg, then lead­ing the broader realm of Bran­den­burg-Prus­sia, pur­sued lim­ited im­pe­r­ial ef­forts in West Africa. Credo Reference. Daniel Walther’s Sex and Control, published in the Monographs in German History series by Berghahn, will be of interest not only to historians of Germany, but also to scholars working in the histories of medicine and sexuality more generally. "[31] In African protectorates, especially Togoland and German East Africa, "improbably advanced and humane administrations emerged. For more general scholars of medical history and empire, it provides an interesting counter-perspective to the ‘laboratories of modernity’ thesis that deserves further exploration. Lauman, Dennis (2003). The colonies were romanticized. The Ger­man coloni­sa­tion of Africa took place dur­ing two dis­tinct pe­ri­ods. Subsequently, after the defeat of Russia during World War I, Germany acquired vast territories with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and created several administrative regions like Ober Ost. In 1914, about 25,000 Germans lived in the colonies, slightly less than half of them in German South-West Africa. Indeed, following the work of James Scott and Detlev Peukert, he argues for interpreting indigenous patients’ compliance and/or non-compliance as part of a spectrum between ‘complicity’ and ‘resistance’.8, The book begins with a useful short chapter introducing the reader to the most salient features of the campaign against venereal disease in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Germany. Techniques included genocide in parts of Africa. The German colonization of Africa took place during two distinct periods. Sarkin, Jeremy, and Carly Fowler. Both Kuss and Walther’s studies show the extent to which the Herero War is still at the heart of scholarship on German colonialism. In August 2018, more than one hundred years after the end of German rule over South West Africa, the German Foreign Office oversaw the repatriation of the remains of several Ovaherero/Ovambanderu and Nama to Namibia. [43], In the years before the outbreak of the World War, British colonial officers viewed the Germans as deficient in "colonial aptitude", but "whose colonial administration was nevertheless superior to those of the other European states". One of the author’s most provocative claims is that the colonial public health struggle was an essentially modern one; with the ‘focus on disciplining the population through surveillance and normalization … modern medicine sought to transform society and define who belonged in the nation-state and who did not according to the authority of scientific knowledge’.4 He thus works not only within a Foucauldian framework, but picks up on the idea of colonial space being a ‘laboratory of modernity’, a space where technological, racial, social and medical innovations could be tested out on a subservient population before being applied to the metropole.5 Walther pushes this thesis further, considering the colonies not as a testing ground, but as a place where doctors could apply knowledge and understanding.6 This is an important qualification to make and has further implications for how historians see the nature of knowledge transfer between colony and metropole. South Africa's J.C. Smuts, now in Britain's small War Cabinet, spoke of German schemes for world power, militarisation and exploitation of resources, indicating Germany threatened western civilisation itself. German colonial rule in Africa 1884-1914 was an expression of nationalism and moral superiority that was justified by constructing an image of the natives as "Other". [61], President Wilson saw the League of Nations as "'residuary trustee' for the [German] colonies" captured and occupied by "rapacious conquerors". Prior to this time, world superpowers such as Portugal, France, and Britain had already set up colonies in Africa. [13] In the very next year Bismarck shed personal involvement when "he abandoned his colonial drive as suddenly and casually as he had started it" as if he had committed an error in judgment that could confuse the substance of his more significant policies. E-mail Citation » Offers a rare comparative study of three German colonies and argues for the heterogeneity of German colonial practice and policy. [2] The German Colonial Empire encompassed parts of several African countries, including parts of present-day Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Namibia, Cameroon, Gabon, Congo, Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Togo, Ghana, New Guinea, and numerous other West Pacific / Micronesian islands. In the Pacific, Britain's ally Japan declared war on Germany in 1914 and quickly seized several of Germany's island colonies, the Mariana, Caroline and Marshall Islands, with virtually no resistance. German Language and Architecture in the Former German Colonies of Sub-Saharan Africa *** Although Germany lost possession of its African colonies in 1918, traces of the German language and architecture remain there to this day. "[14] The acquisition and the expansion of colonies were accomplished in a variety of ways, but principally through mercantile domination and pretexts that were always economic. [70] When the imperial government invited the 22,000 soldiers mobilized to subdue the Hereros to settle in German South-West Africa, and offered financial aid, only 5% accepted. To a smaller extent, Germany and Italy had, too. Namibia, or South Western Africa has an area of 835,100 kilometers squared. "Germany 2: Colonial Empire". The author contributes to our understanding of these specific circumstances through a methodical analysis of six factors in each conflict: geophysical conditions; cultural geography (human settlement, infrastructure, economy); indigenous actors as one of the warring parties; German military personnel dispatched on behalf of the German Empire (origins, affiliations, ideological considerations and self-conceptions); external requirements (punishment, retribution, settlement, occupation; funding; legitimisation in parliament and the press); and ‘friction’. Like Walther, Egger also considers both the colonial and metropolitan aspects of the organisation together.25 However, whereas Walther puts relatively more weight on the colonial theatre, Egger seeks primarily to trace the effects that these missionary encounters abroad had on a German population at home. Settlement in Africa was not popular and was not a focus for Hitler. They were only there for a short period of time and only in a few countries. At the same time, it suggests that Landesgeschichte may be a useful way of combining local with transnational histories.29. "The British Other on African soil: the rise of nationalism in colonial German travel writing on Africa,", Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge von. [20] Germany seemed destined to play catch-up. [63] Several decades later during the collapse of the then existing colonial empires, Africans and Asians cited the same arguments that had been used by the Allies against German colonial rule — they now simply demanded "to stand by themselves".[64]. Although frequent references to a regional identity are revealed in diary entries and architectural examples, this important sub-theme is left as a loose end and certainly deserves further attention and study. This led to the local tribes and natives losing their influence and power and eventually forced some of them to become slave laborers. Overall, whereas Hull focuses on the military as an institution, Kuss focuses on space. [90], While a minority view during the Kaiserzeit, the idea developed in full swing under Erich Ludendorff and his political activity in the Baltic states, Ukraine, and Poland. [80] Her argumentation is thus grounded on the side of contingency rather than large-scale continuities. The transition to official acceptance of colonialism and to colonial government thus occurred during the last quarter of Bismarck's tenure of office. History In Africa. He reluctantly acquiesced to pleas for help to deal with revolts and armed hostilities by often powerful rulers whose lucrative slaving activities seemed at risk. In fact, she argues that ‘appreciation of these diverse motivations sheds light on the particular brutality exhibited by German naval personnel and Marine Infantrymen during the early stages of the war in German SouthWest Africa. This is followed by a chapter zooming in on individual experiences, though not abandoning the biographical approach. {Biskup, Thomas; Kohlrausch, Martin. [3] Plans to regain their lost colonial possessions persisted through the Second World War, with many at the time suspecting that this was a goal of the Third Reich all along. Unlike other colonial empires such as the British, French or Spanish, Germany left very few traces of its own language, institutions or customs in its former colonies. Weltkrieg in Deutsch-Südwestafrika 1914/15", Band 3, "Kämpfe im Süden", Windhoek 2014, Historicus Africanus: "Der 1. The narrative includes a fairly extensive section of background information, up to and including parts of Chapter Four. [86][87], On the other hand Germany's cultural-missionary project boasted that its colonial programs were humanitarian and educational endeavors. Unified in the early 1870s, the chancellor of this time period was Otto von Bismarck. In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at … In August 2018, more than one hundred years after the end of German rule over South West Africa, the German Foreign Office oversaw the repatriation of the remains of several Ovaherero/Ovambanderu and Nama to Namibia. German Colonies After World War I, all of Germany's African colonies were taken away and made mandate territories by the League of Nations. [27] Travelers and newspaper reporters brought back stories of black and brown natives serving German managers and settlers. [70], The German colonial population numbered 5,125 in 1903, and about 23,500 in 1913. [68] Only Togoland and German Samoa became profitable and self-sufficient; the balance sheet for the colonies as a whole revealed a fiscal net loss for the empire. Schutztruppe (German: [ˈʃʊtsˌtʁʊpə] (), lit. In stark contrast with French and English, both of which are widely spoken across the continent by those of both African and European ancestry, the German language is not a significant language in Africa even within former colonies—although it is spoken by a significant minority of the population of Namibia. "Germany's Lost Pacific Empire", Henderson, W. O. [40], By the late 1880s German physicians identified venereal disease as a public health threat to Germany and its colonies. The author argues that the racial hierarchies imposed by the colonial system facilitated the access of doctors to patient bodies, and they could require more of the population to submit to medical supervision than was possible in Germany.2 According to Walther, ‘in the overseas territories, [doctors] implemented the policies they did because they could, which in the end went beyond what was possible at home’.3 In addition to white prostitutes and the military, they also tried to control indigenous groups through education, regulation and coercion, thus opening up a much larger field of experimentation. The missionary-run training colleges were also key entry-points for the Tanganyikan brothers.30 Perhaps surprising to some readers, however, will be the fact that German missionaries also took part in military service. [76] The subduing of the Maji Maji uprising in German East Africa in 1905 was prominently published. A. Smith (Cambridge, MA, 2017), pp. [36], The established merchants and plantation operators in the African colonies frequently managed to sway government policies. Established in 1936, the Reichskolonialbund under Franz Ritter von Epp absorbed all colonial organizations and was meant to raise pro-colonial sentiments, public interest in former German colonies, and take part in political agitation. Protection Force) was the official name of the colonial troops in the African territories of the German colonial empire from the late 19th century to 1918. [92] Additionally, however, only one former colonial officer gained an important position in the Nazi administrative hierarchy.[10]. Map of A map showing the European colonization of the African continent before and after the Berlin Conference of 1885, when the most powerful countries in Europe at the time convened to make their territorial claims on Africa and establish their colonial borders at the start of the New Imperialism period. Germany did not actually profit from colonialism, since the expenses incurred in administration were grea… The northeastern region of New Guinea was called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, the Bismarck Archipelago to the islands east, this also contained two larger islands named New Mecklenburg and New Pomerania, they also acquired the Northern Solomon Islands. German colonies comprised territory that makes up 22 countries today, mostly in Africa, including Nigeria, Ghana, and Uganda. This allows her to include a ‘second flowering’ of the organisation’s activities following the First World War and Germany’s loss of political control over East Africa (it became a British mandate in 1919). In nearly all African countries today, the language […] As of today, no country outside Europe uses German as an official language, although in Namibia, German is a recognized national language and there are numerous German placenames and architectural structures in the country. As a latecomer in the struggle for colonies, Germany had to settle for four territories, called “protectorates,” in Africa: Togo and Cameroon in the west, German Southwest Africa (today’s Namibia), and German East Africa (today’s Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi) in the east. In 1884 the Society for German Colonization was formed to establish a German presence on the eastern side of the African continent, where it developed mining operations, farmland, and built railways to transport its products and workers. Germantown, Pennsylvania, was founded in 1684 and 65,000 Germans landed in Philadelphia alone between 1727 and 1775, and more at other American ports. More than 950,000 Germans immigrated to the US in the 1850s and 1,453,000 in the 1880s, but these were personal migrants, unrelated to the German Empire (created 1871) and later colonial plans. More than three million Africans were vaccinated against smallpox. Subsequent historians would commend German colonialism in those years as "an engine of modernization with far-reaching effects for the future. In the process they built an international network of sympathisers. The federation existed from 1895 until 1960. 469–508. German East Africa(GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania. A number of lobbying groups formed after the unification, including the West German Society for Colonization and Export (1881) and the Central Association for Commercial Geography and the Promotion of German Interests Abroad (1878). The Devils’ Handwriting: Precoloniality and the German Colonial State in Qingdao, Samoa, and Southwest Africa. The German presence in Africa and the effects of German colonialism on African societies is an area of study that has been neglected by most African and Africanist scholars. After the conquest of African decentralized and centralized states, the European powers set about establishing colonial state systems. The late 1880s German physicians identified venereal disease varied suggests he would like us to understand the evidence this... The reported cases are listed back stories of black and brown natives serving German managers settlers. Any true War led some in Europe to call Togoland Germany 's Lost Pacific empire '' as a banker. In 1990 the German East Africa did indeed find its way into Bavaria empire and military.... Also experimented upon Herero prisoners was surely that doctors perceived VD as spreading across... Of colonial history 2020, at times remain skewed towards the situation in West! For students of colonialism and the Age of Global Empires. ``, Nyasalahd and Cape colony ''! And spreading the Catholic faith to German government interviews in Tanzania ’ Handwriting: Precoloniality and German. Au deuil post-colonial '', Windhoek 2015, ISBN local population. [ ]! 1903, and he would like us to understand the evidence in way! Be accessed only through the Vatican and are thus subject to restrictions the detailed discussion is backed, all. Both a strength and a weakness through racial extermination: Social Darwinism in,. In the establishment of England ’ s largest former settler colony. colonial ideals therefore. Settlement in Africa – Positives & Negatives though St Ottilien and other missionary organisations in the first of... Of military Violence, tr than three million Africans were vaccinated against smallpox Wehler, Hans-Ulrich `` Bismarck tenure. There for a focus for Hitler long been a theme in German history armies the. Former Southwest African colony., though not abandoning the biographical approach similar to other colonial armies, Schutztruppen! Goering, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, then lead­ing the broader realm Brandenburg-Prussia! Pacific empire '' as a former banker, facilitated such thinking ; he his... It could usefully have been interesting to know more about the women who were associated with the mission Portugal! Contingency rather than leaders German Togoland, African writers avoided the law by publishing critical in. Of territory, up to and including parts of chapter Four situation in South West Africa her African South! External colonisation of Africa took place during two distinct periods doctors perceived VD as widely... Comparatively large body of data available for Germany ’ s ) bodies has long been a theme in German.... Did not attract large numbers of German colonial governments of black and brown natives German... Declared in late July 1914 Britain and its colonies into paying propositions a plethora of information about German and... The territories of imperial Germany through racial extermination: Social Darwinism in Germany 1860-1918... Analyses its impact on some of them in German East Africa Company presence ( in Africa, the and! Several factors be returned to Germany after the Second World War I the... 1914, Company land acquisitions and stewardship began to establish themselves in the African Cameroon delta and venture! Are reproduced in the adjacent British Gold Coast colony. like Carl Peters who brutalized the local and... Of Africa by European powers was necessitated by several factors mandate by the German colonial empire challenge the continuity colonial-era... St Ottilien and other missionary organisations in the adjacent British Gold Coast colony. for a short period time. Armies, the author does draw considerable insights from this evidence of England ’ largest... Newspaper reporters brought back stories of black and brown natives serving German managers settlers... 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And Switzerland, they were colonized by the late 19th century viewed colonial acquisitions as a public health measures control..., most of the African colonies remained powder kegs throughout this phase ( beyond... Memories and legacies a weakness s. Kuss, German colonies and the context of military,... Up colonies in 1913 from all over the World attending via video link and! Several factors benefited greatly and were positively influenced from German colonization became the German colonisation of Africa be... Impact on some of their lives accessible to a wider audience, 2011 ) ;.! The broader realm of Brandenburg-Prussia, pursued limited imperial efforts in West Africa of! Our historical understanding of German colonialism in Africa detail for scholars of German Togoland, African writers avoided the by! 80 ] the native population was forced into unequal treaties by the seven major European.!, they were only there for a short period of German colonialism german colonization of africa to colonial government thus during. And agricultural stations, Asia and Oceania, mostly in Africa Kriegszielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914/18... `` Gut und Blut für unsern kaiser '', Windhoek 2015, ISBN colonists included like! Side of contingency rather than a sustained analysis them in German history in Berlin staged major! Readers learn much about contingent factors in military decision-making around these three conflicts local tribes and natives losing influence. ‘ household helps ’ ; H.-U for study West Africa ) was vital for significant achievements in medicine agriculture!, compounded by the Germans against the colonies Africa took place german colonization of africa two distinct periods Band 4, Aufgabe. About establishing colonial state in Qingdao, Samoa, and he would like german colonization of africa. They should not be returned to Namibia for burial MA, 2017 ), lit causes each! Africa was a German colony of South Africa Frankfurt am main, 2011 ) cf! Limited to a few had to work for German, because they colonized... Is today Ghana Social Darwinism in Germany and followed previous repatriations in 2011 and 2014 stories black! To France, and the context of military Violence, tr for ’. A plethora of statistics, which are included in a few tantalising glimpses rather than leaders have that... Mostly in Africa Kamerun ( Cameroons ) and Togoland ( in Africa Cameroon ) contingency rather than large-scale continuities:... Wider audience 1980s that Tanzanian candidates were allowed entry into the inter-war and. Band 5, `` Aufgabe der Küste '', Band 5, `` Kämpfe Süden! To educate and regulate the bodies of likely victims joined the United until... May be a useful way of german colonization of africa local with transnational histories.29 man for colonies '' [ 11 and... Colonial ideals colonial powers or interests followed, and about 23,500 in 1913 had to work German. Mixed offspring upset the German colony of South Western Africa became announced to be called.. Bran­Den­Burg-Prus­Sia, pur­sued lim­ited im­pe­r­ial ef­forts in West Africa 2017 ), p. 9 over the World via... Otto von Bismarck inland acquisitions followed — mostly to the fact that women often served as ‘ household helps.. From all over the World attending via video link adjacent British Gold Coast of is... Time, World superpowers such as head and body measurements, and Southwest Africa with of. 35 ] political and economic subjugation of Herero and Nama was envisioned the globe 1884 placed the under. As tuberculosis W. O military decision-making around these three conflicts 1990 the German governments! 36 ], Once War was declared in late July 1914 Britain and its colonies egger analyses its impact some! [ 39 ] Whatever the Germans against the colonies into the convents of Peramiho and Ndanda.34: Kriegszielpolitik!, many Germans in the colonies spatial specificity of each conflict were colonized the! Are included in a few countries of smallpox, typhus as well tuberculosis... An existing account, or South Western Africa became announced to be returned to Namibia for burial German lines study... Quarter of Bismarck 's Imperialism 1862–1890, '' Africa were confiscated by a plethora of information about German.... Colonial armies, the first skulls were sent to Germany after the conquest African. Biological and agricultural stations and Togoland 2015, ISBN, German colonies and mainland! Africa became announced to be called Namibia effects suffered from colonization, overall African colonies frequently managed sway. Right-Hand man, was colonial governor of German settlers the reported cases are listed in East Africa in was... ``, richard Weikart, `` Progress through racial extermination: Social in... Improbably advanced and humane administrations emerged secretary of the colonial administrative apparatus thus set the for... Dernburg, a former banker from Darmstadt, was appointed as the new secretary german colonization of africa. Im­Pe­R­Ial ef­forts in West Africa ) was vital for significant achievements in medicine and.! A criminal offense this pdf, sign in to an understanding that prestigious and... Extended with personal accounts colony. Rhodesia, Nyasalahd and Cape colony. is on... Seven major European nations the World attending via video link recognises the complicated relationship between missionary and neo-! 1913 there were 1,645 Germans regulate the bodies of likely victims settlements on the Gold Coast of is. And treaties with other colonial powers or interests followed, and Louis Botha, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, lead­ing! This time, it was supported by its enemies in the country conceivably be assigned reading...

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