0000053785 00000 n There are also attempts to measure the vulnerability to fall below the poverty line, Another approach to vulnerability to poverty is to regard vulnerability as expected poverty. 0000004358 00000 n Poverty and the other multi-dimensional factors and drivers that create vulnerability mean that susceptibility to the impacts of hazards is often, but not always, associated with certain groups, including women, children, the elderly, the disabled, migrants and displaced populations, amongst others. 0000005182 00000 n The body of literature on vulnerability is growing. 0000001552 00000 n The concept of vulnerability to poverty remains underexplored but further research could allow for a distinction between chronic poverty and transient poverty. Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty : Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. 0000007232 00000 n It shows a large spread of human poverty among countries with similar levels of income poverty and thus, HPI is only weakly correlated with income poverty. Policymakers considering changes to social insurance programs such as Social Security and Medicare must consider the economic realities confronting elderly Americans. different disciplines in accordance with the theme of the research, i.e. 0000006506 00000 n They define vulnerability as a probability, the risk that a household will experience at least one episode of poverty in the near future. 0000110583 00000 n ... A very common measure of global poverty was developed by the World Bank, an international institution funded by wealthy nations that provides loans, grants, and other aid to help poor and middle-income nations. Vulnerability to poverty is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities or individuals of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. Poverty Economic strengthening programs seek to reduce poverty, so targeting beneficiaries according to poverty level seems intuitive. The authors propose a simple expansion of those measures to quantify vulnerability to poverty. Vulnerability is most often associated with poverty, but it can also arise when people are isolated, insecure and defenceless in the face of risk, shock or stress. Thus, the time horizon is inherently relevant in the expected poverty approach. “vulnerability to expected poverty (VEP)” approach developed by Chaudhuri, Jalan and Suryahadi (2002) and Calvo and Dercon (2003) to provide a forward looking measure of poverty. Household-Level Consumption in Urban Ethiopia: The Impact of Food Price Inflation and Idiosyncratic Shocks* Draft 0000002657 00000 n We have received your request successfully. either to measure the components of vulnerability or to capture those factors that can explain variation in vulnerability to poverty. Poverty gap concept seeks to measure severity or depth of poverty of a person. The concept is relative and dynamic. The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is a relative poverty measure based on "economic distance", a level of income usually set at 60% of the median household income. The United States, in contrast, uses an absolute poverty measure. Vulnerability refers to a measure describing the greater probability of certain communities like people belonging to backward castes, handicapped persons, old women etc. Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essentials for a minimum standard of living. 75 than of those who have monthly consumption expenditure or income of Rs. This section presents the child poverty estimates for Vietnam on the basis of the Child Vulnerability to Poverty methodology and MICS data. Table 3 shows the incidence rates decomposed by gender, area (urban versus rural areas), region and age group. A root cause of vulnerability is poverty. 0000007775 00000 n Our counselor will call to confirm your booking. Vulnerability to poverty is a measure which describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming or remaining poor in the coming years. Recent events such as increases in fuel and food prices and global financial instability add to the Vulnerability is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. 713 20 Obviously, poverty is more severe of persons who have monthly expenditure of Rs. However, even with present technology estimating vulnerability is simple and much more informative and useful than are static poverty measures, provided one has at least two rounds of panel data. Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty : It a meaure which describes the greater probality of certain communites or individuals [ such as widow or a phisically handicapped person ]  of becoming or remaining poor in coming years . 0000003697 00000 n 2.2.1 Vulnerability vs. It was considered to better reflect the extent of deprivation in deprived countries compared to the HDI. level vulnerability to poverty results “to a large extent from macro vulnerability”. 0000000711 00000 n The rich may have more to lose, but the poor are repeatedly the ones who suffer most, are more exposed to risk, and are living in unsafe places and in unsafe homes. poverty measures. 0000001745 00000 n Vulnerability is a measure, which describes the greater probability of certain communities of becoming, or remaining, poor in the coming years. The places they live in have poorer services and levels of support. Thus vulnerability and poverty are not the same. The new approach is called the vulnerability … 0000002177 00000 n ContentsSHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS (3 MARKS)Explain how poverty begets more poverty.Explain the concepts of :Who are poor in the rural areas?Who are poor in the urban sector?Explain how the low level of education can be held responsible for poverty in India.Suggest some measures to reduce regional poverty.Discuss any three measures to reduce poverty in India. Poverty and vulnerability Measures of poverty through the use of poverty lines (and the various sub-definitions that result from its use), are based on a number of assumptions that also point to limitations of the methodology. Social groups which are most vulnerable to poverty : Scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. becoming or remaining poor in the coming years. The existence of shocks lead to insecurity in household welfare. It reflects a current state of deprivation, of lacking the resources or capabilities to satisfy current needs. The proportion of people below poverty line is not same for all social groups and economic categories in India. Poverty is mainly viewed as an indicator of lack of access to resources and income opportunities, but it has other aspects of social positioning such as geographical location, age, gender, class, ethnicity, community structure, community decision making processes, and political issues that determine poor people’s vulnerability (Yodmani, 2001). To overcome this drawback absolute poverty is measured by poverty gap approach. So for instance the Lighon and Schecter measure is the expected poverty gap, whereas Calvo and Dercon™s measure is the ex-pected Chakravarty index and Kamanou and Morduch (2002) employs the expected Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) index. It reflects a current state of deprivation in deprived countries compared to the HDI vulnerable if it 50-50. The places they live in have poorer services and levels of support to like. 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